Introduction: Dental caries is an infectious disease caused by acidogenic bacteria leading to dissolution of enamel, dentin and cementum. If a suitable treatment plan is formulated for initial carious lesions, they are capable of arresting hardening and then reverting to their healthy state. Various commercially available re-mineralizing agents have been used over the years. Recently several plant extracts have been studied. Grape seed, cranberry, guava leaves are some of the plant products extensively studied. Grape seed extract is mainly derived from the seeds of the grapes. It is rich in antioxidants and oligomeric proanthocyanin complexes and has been linked to a wide range of possible health benefits.
Objective: To determine by means of systematic review the various studies and literature where in grape seed extract was used as a re- mineralizing agent.
Materials and Methods: A search was performed in electronic database (i.e. PUBMED CENTRAL and Medline) using search terms such as enamel re-mineralization, enamel re-mineralizing agents, grape seed extract, de-mineralized enamel etc. alone and in combination by means of PUBMED search builder. Inclusion criteria included In vivo or ex vivo studies in which the re-mineralizing capacity of Grape Seed Extract (GSE) was compared with other re-mineralizing agents.
Results: A total of 3 publications fulfilled all criteria for inclusion. All studies included showed that Grape Seed Extract (GSE) had significant or positive re-mineralizing capacity on enamel. However, one study showed that the re-mineralizing capacity was inferior in comparison to other commercially available re-mineralizing agents (Standard Stannous Fluoride).
Conclusion: With the available evidence the review concludes that Grape Seed Extract (GSE) is an efficient enamel re-mineralizing agent. However, its capacity to re-mineralize enamel is inferior in comparison to other commercially available re-mineralizing agents.
Tea being an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, is the most widely consumed drink in the world after water. There may be microbial contamination of tea powder commonly due to mishandling and unhygienic conditions during the storage and processing of tea. This microbial contamination may lead to serious health hazards. The study aims at conducting a microbial analysis of 10 samples of commercially available tea pouches to study the presence of various microorganisms including fungi in the samples of tea powder. According to the study, it was found that the bacterial load was observed in 80% of the samples (8 out of 10) of branded tea marketed in small pouches and the number of bacterial colonies ranged from 2-68 CFUs; sample no 7 showed the highest bacterial count of 68 CFUs. The bacteria that was commonly observed was bacillus and there was also fungal load in 60% of the sample (6 out of 10) pouches. This research serves as an eye opener to tea addicts and makes them know about the risk of increase in microbial load during shelf period.
Background: Nanotechnology (NPs) is a new technology in science with huge applications including medicine and pharmacology industries. In this study, cost effective and an eco friendly green synthesis has been employed to the fabrication of zinc oxide nanoparticles from the non-toxic grape seed extract as a reducing agent.
Aim: To synthesize and characterize grape seed extract mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles.
Materials and Methods: The synthesis of the zinc oxide nanoparticles was done with green synthesis. Morphological characters like the shape and size of the obtained green synthesised zinc nanoparticles done by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
Results: The results confirmed that the synthesised grape seed extract mediated nanoparticles are eco-friendly, good and non toxic. The visual colour change observed in the graph seed extract solution shows the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The particle size ranges from 20 to 30 microns, which clearly demonstrated the presence of spherical shaped ZnO NPs. The absorption formed in the reaction media has an absorbance peak at 410 nm. The TEM shows spherical shape and versatile nanoparticles. They appear to be arranged in a cluster and open superstructures.
Conclusion: In this study, a simple, biological and low-cost approach was done for the preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles using grape seed extract. Thus the synthesised grape seed extract mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles can be subjected to the various other biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic evaluation to know the efficiency of these nanoparticles.
Background: Gold nanoparticles are the most prominent metal nanoparticles and having wide range of applications in drug delivery and many therapeutic potentials.
Materials and Methods: In this present investigation we have used some Indian herbal plants for the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its antibacterial efficacy was measured.
Results: The medicinal plants such as Alternanthera bettzickiana, Gymnema sylvestre and Andrographis paniculata used for the synthesis and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity of gold nanoparticles such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Conclusion: The plant mediated gold nanoparticles may used in the controlling of pathogens in various medical field.
Morphologic depiction and genetic components analysis of fruit traits and yield were done in 10 Iranian melon landraces. Significant differences were detected by analysis of variance for all measured traits, but year effect was not significant, indicating that the significant difference was not observed year to year and was not effective on the phenotypic values. Phenotypic variances were higher than genotypic variances for most of the traits. Number of fruit and flesh diameter (74% and 70%) had the highest heritability between traits respectively. Correlation coefficients indicate that the phenotypic correlation coefficients were higher than the genotypic correlation coefficients in studied traits. Yield possessed positive and highly significant correlation with fruit weight, flesh diameter, cavity diameter. Cluster analysis by ward method grouped genotypes into the two groups. Random forest analysis was done on 60 samples of genotypes, Variable importance by random forest approach revealed flesh diameter and cavity diameter depicted as effective variables in identifying yield variation. SVM graph showed cavity diameter and fruit length seperate out genotype sefidak with high confidence from the others.
The present study reported with the production of enzyme cellulases (CMCase, Fpase and β-glucosidase) and xylanase by submerged fermentation using Aspergillus niger and sorghum hybrid non-BMR CSH 22 variety & low lignin BMR 22 and 24 substrates were evaluated after pre-treating with H2SO4 & NaOH. The highest cellulose and low lignin reported pretreatment conditions were applied for substrates and used the same in the fermentation. Maximum CMCase, FPase, and β-glucosidase production was observed for pretreated BMR 22 Sorghum biomass with values 30.5 ± 3.75 IU/ml, 2.74±0.34 IU/ml, and 9.6 ± 0.37 IU/ml respectively. But maximum xylanase production 15.8±1.75 IU/ml was observed while using untreated CSH 22 sorghum biomass as substrate. Results indicate low lignin mutant BMR22 and 24 substrates were promising substrates for the production of cellulase enzymes.
Argan tree (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels) is a medium-sized, thorny tree endemic to the semi-desert Souss valley of southwestern Morocco. Cultivated for oil and fodder, it is considered the most important plant species in North Africa from both economic and ecological standpoints. In the present work, argan seeds originating from two producing regions, namely Essaouira and Agadir, were tested for germination in different substrates (sand, peat, and 1:1 mixture of sand and peat) in order to develop effective propagation protocols for this plant. The tests were carried out using different pretreatment methods (1 mg.L-1 GA3 at 4°C for 48 h; distilled water at 4°C for 2 h; 1 mg.L-1 GA3 at 4°C for 2 h; lukewarm water at 40°C for 48 h) and two types of explants (nut and kernel). Although the results varied slightly between the two origin regions, the use of the 1:1 mixture of sand and peat as substrate has clearly enhanced In vivo germination of argan seeds both in terms of rates and duration. On the other hand, nuts germinated at a higher rate than kernels regardless of the treatment applied.
The present study aimed to identify the chemical compositions of fragrance and essential oil obtained from the petals of wild Rosa iberica flowers. The analysis was done by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The volatile organic compounds extracted from the petals showed eleven compounds. The most abundant compounds were: Phenyl ethyl alcohol (38.82%), benzyl alcohol (28.48%) and geraniol (12.57%). Essential oil analysis showed the presence of thirteen components of which anethole (45.56%) and pthalic acid (32.23%) had the highest rate. The fragrance and essential oil revealed from the flowers of R. iberica for the first time are important in using it as a source of natural food additives, medicinal compounds and a fragrant parent in future breeding programs of ornamental plants.
Chrysosporium indicum JK14 was used in the recycling of feather waste into compost. The combination of poultry feathers and sterilized soil was inoculated with fungus C. indicum JK14 in different proportions and kept for degradation. C. indicum JK14 supported better degradation of feathers in soil and enhanced nutritional value. A pot experiment with this compost showed that the plant length of Zea mays was significantly increased by 34.26%, and plant fresh weight was enhanced by 56.52% as compared to control (Only soil no feathers) due to micronutrient released by fungal degradation of feather waste. This approach of feather waste application will not only helpful in eco-friendly growth promotion of various crops but also helpful in controlling environmental pollution that occurs due to the production of tones of feather waste daily globally.
The study was carried out in the laboratory of Plant Tissue Culture at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Basra. Tubers of three certified Dutch cultivars of potato plant (Lizita, Arnova and Safari) were brought from the Horticulture Station for Potato Seed Production Project, Babel city, Iraq. The aim was to produce salinity- tolerant cells from the callus of three cultivars of potato Lizita, Arnova and Safari cultured on MS medium containing different concentrations of sodium chloride. The results of the study showed that callus of Lizita cultivar grew when cultured on MS media supplemented with 0, 80 and 100 mmol.L-1 NaCl and did not grow at 120, 140 and 160 mmol.L-1 NaCl after four weeks of culture. The Lizita and Arnova cultivars gave the highest fresh weight of callus compared with Safari cultivar after four weeks of culture. The control and 0.250 mmol.L-1 salicylic acid + 120 mmol.L-1 NaCl treatments improved the callus growth of Lizita cultivar after six weeks from culturing. However, when the callus of Lizita cultivar was subjected to NaCl at a concentration of 80 mmol.L-1, only one additional protein band appeared on the gel. This treatment also indicated the appearance of four proteins with high molecular weight in the callus of Lizita cultivar, reached 225.000, 150.000, 100.000 and 75.000 kDa.
Nephrotoxicity is an injury to the kidney it associated with impaired kidney function may be due to oxygen free radicals produced by drugs, chemical, and non-infectious agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate Otostegia fruticosa(O. fruticosa) leaves for fractionation of flavonoids compounds and phenolic acids using HPLC and also the determination of essential oil using GC-MS. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity was determined from the O. fruticosa leaves extract in mice. Moreover, the biological experiment was performed to assess the ameliorative effect of essential oil extract from O. fruticosa leaves at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg b.wt on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.
The results revealed that the O. fruticosa leaves extract was the highest containt of flavonoids as hispertin, kampferol, narengin, rutin, apigenin, rosmarinic and quercetrin. Total phenolic compounds were showed that the vanillic, pyrogallol, salycilic and catechein acids were the highest amounted in O. fruticosa leaves extract. The essential oils from O. fruticosa leaves extract as 2,5Dimethyl-p-cymene, 2-Allyl-4-methyl phenol, Apiol and Isolongipholene were the highest followed by Isocalamendiol, β-Caryophyllene, Limonene, γ-terpineol, α-Copaene, β-citronellol, Pulegone and α-Himachalene, respectively.
The acute toxicity experiment demonstrated that the essential oils from O. fruticosa leaves extract had no significant toxic effect in rats after administered at doses until 5000 mg/kg b.wt and sub-acute toxicity test confirmed that the O. fruticosa leaves the safety of the extract at the given dose.
The effect of essential oils from O. fruticosa leaves on antioxidant enzymes including GPx, SOD and CAT in rats suffering kidney damage groups, the results showed that the control positive group exhibited a significant decrease and the highest in the control negative group for antioxidant enzymes activity and also the different rat groups were fed administered orally essential oil extract from O. fruticosa increased gradually for antioxidant enzymes activity. In addition, essential oil of O. fruticosa leaves improved the kidney functions and some levels in the different nephrotoxicity rats groups. These results were confirmed by histological examination of the kidney this study concluded that the essential oil from O. fruticosa leaves extract protect the kidney from gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and thus substantiate the beneficial effects attributed traditionally to this plant.
Sugarcane production in South Africa is limited by drought stress and its impact is expected to increase due to climate change. However, limited research is conducted to develop cultivars that are suitable for cultivation under water-stressed conditions. This study aimed to select, through morphological and physiological traits, the ethyl methanesulfonate treatment(s) that can produce calli and plantlets that are resistant to mannitol-induced osmotic stress. Sugarcane calli were exposed to ethyl methanesulfonate for 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 hours. To determine optimal selection lethal doses, calli were cultured on media containing 0, 150, 225 and 300 mM mannitol for further eight weeks under dark and light conditions. Incubation periods of half an hour and one hour induced genomic mutations without inhibiting callus growth and plant regeneration abilities. EMS-treated calli retained whiter, compact and with yellowish friable texture when compared with the control after the two-weeks recovery period post exposure to osmotic stress. Callus that was exposed for one hour was able to recover and regenerate plantlets at 225 and 407 mM mannitol stress. However, the two-hour incubation period and above resulted in stunted and albino plantlets. The LD50 and LD90 for selection were calculated as 225 and 407 mM mannitol. The EMS mutagenesis and in vitro selection for osmotic stress using mannitol can be used successfully to select sugarcane plantlets with better morphological and physiological responses to water stress in a very short time.
Background: In some previous studies, the aqueous crude fruit pericarp extract of Garcinia mangostana was reported for its anti-urolithiatic property to replace allopathic medicine due to its side effects. Based on this previous study the current study was focused on anti-urolithiatic property of Garcinone E, a xanthone polyphenol isolated from the fruit pericarp of G.manostana, which has not been tested for its anti-urolithiatic property till now.
Objective: The aim of the current study is to investigate anti-urolithiatic property of the isolated Garcinone E (GE) from G.mangostana fruit pericarp using both In silico and in vitro analysis. Materials and Methods: In silico Molecular docking was performed in AutoDock 4.0 on Garcinone E with Kidney stone forming proteins- Xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh), Oxalate oxidase and Tamm-Horesefall Protein (THP) and was visualised in Discovery studio software. In vitro Simultaneous Static flow Model (S.S.M) was performed to investigate its Anti-urolithiatic property against Calcium Oxalate (CaOx) and Calcium Phosphate (CaP) crystals. Nucleation inhibition and Aggregation inhibition assays were also performed as preliminary studies using Calcium Oxalate crystal model. Results: Molecular Docking studies showed an interaction of Garcinone E with oxalate oxidase, THP and Xdh with binding affinity of -6.53, -5.64 and -4.96 Kcal/mol respectively and changed the property of THP, Xdh and Oxalate oxidase which inhibits the promotion of formation of Kidney stone. S.S.M showed 47.01% inhibition for CaOx crystals and 68.79% inhibition of CaP crystals. Percentage inhibition of nucleation and aggregation of CaOx produced by isolated Garcinone E was found to be 62.87 ± 1.49% and 64.19 ± 1.42% respectively at 1 mg/ml.
Conclusion: Thus, Garcinone E proved to be potent Anti-urolithiatic agent by reducing and disintegrating the urinary crystals.
Background and Objective: Magnetic water technology is one of the promising techniques. It used to improve water and crop productivity throughout soil desalinization that assist plants in alleviating salinity stress via improving the plant antioxidative protection system.
Materials and Methods: A field trial conducted to evaluate the capability of magnetized field in improving the growth, physiological and biochemical aspects and yield attributes of barley varieties (Giza-123, Giza-128 and Giza-2000) using two magnetized brackish water sources.
Results: Irrigation with the two magnetically treated brackish-water sources surpassed irrigation with non-magnetized brackish water in all growth parameters. Giza-2000 variety gave the highest values for growth characters followed by Giza-128 and Giza-123, respectively. The three barley varieties gave more values in some Macro- and micro-elements in dry barley shoot with both magnetized brackish water than those irrigated with none-magnetized one. Irrigation with both magnetized brackish-water induced significant improvement in yield parameters reached 13.43% in plant height, 23.53% in number of spikes/m2, 10.60% in spike length, 15.11% in spike weight, 10.98% in grains weight/spike, 5.10% in number of spikelets/spike and 10.87 in 100–grains weight. Nutritive parameters in barley grains under irrigation with both magnetized brackish-water significantly increased than irrigation with non-magnetized one. Giza-2000 variety came in the first order for producing more values in the nutritive parameters.
Conclusively: Irrigation of the three barley varieties with magnetic-brackish water improved the yield parameters compared with irrigation with brackish-water with superiority of Giza-2000 variety in most tested parameters.
The present review paper is focused on bringing forth the different methods used in controlling early blight disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). It is a well-known fact that tomato is a main fruit consumed as a vegetable globally which provides important minerals, vitamins, fibres and antioxidants. However, tomato is susceptible to an array of diseases, of which early blight is the most destructive instigated by Alternaria solani, affects fruits and foliage resulting in a loss of 80% yields. Therefore, it becomes imperative to discuss the various strategies applied in controlling early blight of tomato. A number of researchers have used diverse methods to regulate early blight disease of tomato ranging from use of fungicides, plant extracts to several biological organisms. Nevertheless, it is equally important to develop and apply the most efficient management systems and good agricultural practices to rescue the plant of interest.