PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY <p><strong>PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (ISSN: 0972-2025)</strong> journal is published by I. K. Press from Volume 14. <strong>PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY</strong> is the official journal of <strong>Society for Biology and Biotechnology</strong>, Kannankurichi-P.O Salem-636 008, Tamil Nadu State, India.</p> <p><strong>The Scope of Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology (PCBMB) (ISSN: 0972-2025) includes</strong><br>1. Plant Science related research (including all branches of Plant Science like Agronomy, Algology and Phycology, Bacteriology, Bryology, Mycology, Paleobotany, Plant Anatomy and Physiology, Pteridology, etc)<br>2. Cell Biology (including all branches of Cell Biology)<br>3. Biotechnology (including all branches of Biotechnology)<br>4. Molecular Biology (including all branches of Molecular Biology)<br>This international English-language journal includes papers exploring both basic and applied aspects of the above-mentioned areas.</p> International Knowledge Press en-US PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 0972-2025 Ameliorative Potentials of Methanol Bark Extract of Detarium senegalense (Tallow Tree) in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats <p>Diabetes is a global metabolic disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide and raises the global death rate, posing a public health concern. Because antidiabetic traditional drugs are expensive, have side effects, and are ineffective, researchers are looking into novel medicinal plants to find a long-term cure that is inexpensive, has few or no side effects, and is highly effective in treating diabetes and its consequences. <em>Detarium senegalense</em> is a versatile plant used to cure a variety of ailments, including diabetes. This research aimed to investigate the ameliorative potentials of methanol bark extract of <em>Detarium senegalense</em> in streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic male Wistar Rats. Thirty (30) adult male Wistar rats weighing 120-180gm were chosen at random and put into six (6) groups of five rats each (n=5) for this investigation. A single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (150mg/kg) produced diabetes in rats. Normal and diabetic control groups are represented by groups 1 and 2, respectively. Group 3, a diabetic group, received metformin (50mg/kg). Groups 4, 5, and 6 received methanol bark extract of <em>Deterium senegalenses</em> at 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively. The animals were euthanized at the end of the 21-day treatment period, and organs were excised for biochemical examination. The generated data was analyzed with the SPSS software, and the results were expressed as mean SEM. Result confirms <em>Detarium senegalense</em> methanol bark extract as a hypoglycemic agent on the diabetic rats, by decreasing blood glucose level and the activity of metabolic enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), increase hexokinase, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Glut 1 and Glut 2 activities while decreasing the activities of <em>Malondialdehyde</em>. Conclusively, the bark of <em>Detarium senegalense</em> has been shown to have anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative.</p> Odeghe Hope Enameguonor Ojieh Anthony Emeka Ossai Nduka Richard Enaohwo Taniyohwo Mamerhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-04-10 2023-04-10 64 80 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i1-28197 Molecular Characterization of a Bipartite Begomovirus and an Alphasatellite Associated with Leaf Curl and Mosaic Disease of Bitter Gourd in Punjab <p>Bitter gourd (<em>Momordica charantia</em>) is an economically important vegetable and medicinal plant that gets infected by a number of viruses. A survey was conducted in and around Jalandhar region of Punjab, India to study viral symptoms in the bitter gourd fields. The plants showed reduced fruit size, upward leaf curling and mosaic symptoms, indicating begomovirus infection. DNA was isolated from the symptomatic leaves and tested for begomovirus infection using group-specific PCR primers. Amplified products were cloned into pMD20-T vector and sequenced. Based on the obtained sequence, new sets of primers were designed and used for amplification of complete DNA-A and DNA-B. Complete DNA-A and DNA-B were cloned in pMD20-T and sequenced. Sequence analysis of the present DNA-A and DNA-B showed their highest identity with <em>Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus </em>(ToLCNDV). The associated <em>Tomato leaf curl New Delhi alphasatellite </em>was amplified using universal primers, cloned and sequenced. In phylogenetic analysis, the present DNA-A and DNA-B grouped with ToLCNDV isolates and other begomoviruses reported from bitter gourd. Phylogenetic analysis of the present alphasatellite showed its closet identity with <em>Tomato leaf curl New Delhi alphasatellite</em>. Recombination analysis of the DNA-A sequence showed that the present bitter gourd isolate might be a recombinant of <em>Squash leaf curl China virus</em> (SLCChV) as a major parent and <em>Chilli leaf curl virus</em> as a minor parent. Analysis of the DNA-B suggested it to be a recombinant of SLCChV as a major parent and <em>Chyaote enation yellow mosaic virus </em>as a minor parent. The present alphasatellite might be a recombinant of <em>Tomato yellow spot alphasatellite</em> as a major parent and <em>Croton yellow mosaic alphasatellite </em>as a minor parent. The percent identities of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences validate and support the results of the phylogenetic and recombination analyses.</p> Priya Lager Jyoti Sharma Yogesh Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-04-06 2023-04-06 52 63 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i1-28188 Zinc Effects on Antioxidative Enzymes and Nitrate Reductase Activity in Phaseolus vulgaris (Common Bean) Seedling <p>The present study analyses antioxidative enzymes and <em>in vitro</em> NR activity in common bean seedlings in response to ZnCl<sub>2</sub> supply over the range of 0 – 1 mM concentrations. Bean seedlings were grown in plastic pots containing acid washed sand for 10 days and watered daily with ½ Strength Hoagland’s Solution containing 5 mM NH<sub>4</sub>NO<sub>3</sub> as nitrogen source and desired concentration of ZnCl<sub>2</sub>. Zn supply increased seedling weight and shoot length at 0.001 mM whereas root length decreased at all concentrations.</p> <p>Amongst the antioxidative enzymes, super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased up to 0.1 mM significantly and then decreased at 1 mM in leaf tissue whereas in root tissue it decreased at 0.001 mM and then increased significantly. The catalase (CAT) activity increased at all the concentration being more prominent at 0.1 mM in leaf whereas in roots it increased substantially at 0.1 and 1 mM Zn. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity in leaf increased at 0.1 mM but decreased at 0.001 and 1 mM, whereas in roots it decreased at all the concentration. Various <em>in vitro</em> activities of NR were analysed in response to Zn supply. The effect of Zn on NADH-NR is more substantial than MVH-NR at all the concentrations. Also NR<sub>max</sub> and NR<sub>act</sub> increased at all the concentration of Zn being most prominent at 0.1 mM in leaf and at 1 mM in root tissue.</p> Shaishavee Saini Rekha Gadre ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-04-05 2023-04-05 42 51 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i1-28185 Antihyperglycemic and Anticholesterolemic Effects of Fig Leaf (Ficus glomerata Linn.) Extract in Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Wistar Albino Rats <p>In this present scenario,medicinal plants are becoming popular for the treatment of various diseases all over the world. Some of them are being traditionally used in diabetes for human welfare. Diabetes is a common endocrine disorder that impairs glucose metabolism resulting in severe diabetic complications including retinopathy, angiopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and causing neurological disorder due to perturbation in utilization of glucose. In the present study, an effort has been made to assess the antidiabetic properties of <em>Ficus glomerata </em>leaf extract treatment in alloxan monohydrate induced diabetic albino rats. Present study refers to the medicinal plant <em>Ficus glomerata l</em>eaf metabolites compared to insulin treatment animal model. Diabetes was induced in albino rats with the help of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg) intraperitoneal saline injection. Present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of <em>Ficus glomerata </em>aqueous leaf extract in diabetic albino rats for 4 week treatment. The treatment with aqueous leaf extract at high dose (1g/kg) significantly decreased circulating blood glucose concentration in comparison to mild dose (500mg/kg) and low dose (100mg/kg) respectively in diabetic rats. The aqueous leaf extract also improved the hematological picture, weight, biochemical profile and glucose intolerance lowering effects in diabetic animal models. In conclusion, <em>Ficus glomerata </em>leaf metabolites have tremendous antidiabetic potential in alloxan-induced experimental models. The results suggest the possibility that <em>Ficus glomerata </em>leaves metabolites to cure diabetes in herbal medicine.</p> Sanjeev Kumar N. K. Prasad Arti Kumari Kumari Shachi N. K. Dubey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-22 2023-03-22 30 41 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i1-28169 Molecular Variability in Phaeoisariopsis personata Causing Late Tikka Leaf Spot of Ground Nut in Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu <p>An experiment was carried out at Department of plant pathology, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India. To test the five isolates of Phaeoisariopsis personata from different regions of groundnut Vridhachalam-2 (VRI-2) variety that showed typical symptoms of late tikka leaf spot disease from Cuddalore district <em>viz.,</em> Shivapuri (LT1), Srimushnam (LT2), Chaithiram (LT3), Parangipettai (LT4), and Kammapuram (LT5) were collected. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to detect the variations among the isolates of <em>P. personata</em>. Pair wise genetic similarities between the different isolates of <em>P. personata </em>were estimated by DICE similarity coefficient. The Dendrogram results revealed that these five isolates showed 66 per cent to 80 per cent similarity coefficient. There is no congruence between the RAPD pattern and the virulence pattern of test isolates. The clustering in the RAPD dendrogram was not associated with the virulence.</p> S. Sundaramoorthy J. Johnny Subakar Ivin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-21 2023-01-21 23 29 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i1-28147 Medicinal Properties in Some Components of Cannabis Species <p>Cannabis is a medicinal plant well known for its medicinal properties. Many species of cannabis are well characterized for their antimicrobial, anti-diabetic and anticancer effects in India and worldwide.</p> <p>The present review focuses on the various medicinal properties from extracts and the various compounds well isolated and characterized from different varieties of Cannabis plant.</p> . Sonam Maya Datt Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-10 2023-01-10 17 22 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i1-28094 Selection Procedures for Improving Some Economic Characters and Correlated Responses in Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) Cross <p>A study was done at Sakha Agricultural Research Station Farm, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt during 2019-2021 growing seasons. The study aimed at assessing the efficacy and usability of various selection procedures, determining the effectiveness of selection for superior families and estimating the response to selection. The materials utilized for selection of promising families in early segregating generations included F<sub>2</sub>, F<sub>3</sub> and F<sub>4</sub> generations of Giza 94 × S106 cotton cross.. Findings revealed better F<sub>4</sub> means than the F<sub>3</sub> and F<sub>2</sub> means for all studied characters due to the selection procedures used. High heritability values were recorded for most studied characters. Significant desirable correlations were noticed between seed cotton yield with lint yield, bolls/plant, lint/seed, seeds/boll and boll weight. Canonical discriminant analysis among F<sub>3</sub> families showed that the first five canonical functions accounted for 100% of total variances. While first canonical discriminant function represented 46% of the total variance among genotypes with the greatest Eigen value and prevailed by great loading from most yield characters and micronaire reading. Ten of the selection indices surpassed direct selection in improving lint yield. The highest actual advance in lint yield for F<sub>3</sub> obtained from selection index comprising lint yield/plant in addition to bolls/plant, seeds per boll and lint per seed. In F<sub>4</sub> generation, the maximum actual gains were obtained for most yield traits with indices involved lint yield/plant and seeds/boll with lint/seed. Most of the selected families in F<sub>4</sub> scored high values for almost all the studied characters and surpassed the corresponding means of selected families in F<sub>3</sub> and F<sub>2</sub> generations; these selected families might be used to improve cotton yield and fiber quality in breeding programs.</p> Heba Hussien Elsayed Hamed Soad H. Hafez Ashraf Ebrahim Ismail Darwesh Maamoun Ahmed Abdel-Moneam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-05 2023-01-05 1 16 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i1-28091 EFFICIENT NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT IN FIELD CROPS FOR FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY <p><strong>The current agricultural producers are under immense strain to supply rising food demand due to rising population and dwindling land and other resources. Several critical inputs, such as fertilizers and other chemicals, are exploited to address this challenge, creating environmental damage. Soil health has deteriorated, land degradation has occurred, and major environmental challenges have arisen as a result of intensive agricultural production without respect for environmental sustainability. As a result, future efforts to feed the world's growing population should prioritize increasing agricultural output while remaining ecologically responsible. In this sense, novel approaches are required, as current policies are incapable of addressing these issues. The notion of efficient nutrient management, which includes a variety of strategies for agricultural sustainability, as well as numerous soil and crop management strategies (SCMS) meant to maximise crop output under environmentally sustainable conditions, is addressed. Balanced fertilization, minimized use of chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides, and improved crop input utilization efficiency could help reduce greenhouse gas emissions while simultaneously saving the environment. Sustainable agriculture holds promising applications for humanity and the environment, and it can be realised if industrialized and developing countries collaborate to establish a "shared vision" that produces more food with less ecological consequences.</strong></p> MONEESA BASHIR M. ANWAR BHAT SHAILJA SHARMA NAVJOT RANA SUHAIL FAYAZ SADAF IQBAL RAZIA GULL . RAHEEBA-TUN-NISA WANI BARKAT UL ISLAM . DUSHYANT DHAMNI PATYAL ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 58 67 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i39-408030 SURVEY AND ESTIMATION OF YIELD LOSS DUE TO STEM NECROSIS VIRUS OF POTATO GROWING AREAS OF SOUTH-EASTERN RAJASTHAN <p><strong>Stem necrosis disease seemed as dim brunet necrotic parts at the nodes and caused girdling of the petiole foremost to leak dropping and necrosis. Stem necrosis disease ranged from 8.5 to 22.5 per cent was recorded in Kota, Baran and Bundi districts of Rajasthan. Significantly tuber yield reduction was recorded at grade wise. Maximum yield reductions (63.16%) were observed under more than 75% disease severity in Southern Eastern Rajasthan. </strong></p> MAHESH MEENA DHUNI LAL YADAV HARPHOOL MEENA C. B. MEENA RAJENDRA KUMAR YADAV ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 68 74 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i39-408069 FIRST REPORT AND GENOME CHARACTERIZATION OF Pepper leaf curl Bangladesh virus INFECTING CHILLI IN INDIA <p><strong>Chilli (<em>Capsicum </em><em>annuum</em> L.) leaves showing curling symptoms were collected from Jalandhar region of Punjab, India, a</strong><strong>nd a monopartite begomovirus <em>Pepper leaf curl Bangladesh virus</em> (PepLCBV) associated with <em>Tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite</em> (ToLCBB) was found to infect the crop. </strong><strong>The viral DNA was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Sequencing results revealed that the virus genome and betasatellite consists of 2755 and 1361 nucleotides respectively. Infectious clones of the virus were constructed in binary vector pCAMBIA-1300 and Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. PepLCBV infectious clone caused minor curling in chilli plants when inoculated alone, but it produced typical leaf curl and stunting symptoms in combination with the ToLCBB infectious clone. Phylogenetic analysis with other closely related begomoviruses showed that the present isolate shares high identity with <em>Pepper leaf curl Bangladesh virus. </em>The present isolate grouped with other chilli isolates of begomoviruses reported from India (<em>Pepper leaf curl Lahore virus</em>, <em>Chilli leaf curl Nagpur virus</em> and <em>Tomato leaf curl Liwa virus</em>). Phylogenetic analysis of betasatellite showed its closest identity with <em>Tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite. </em>It grouped with other betasatellites reported from India (<em>Tomato leaf curl betasatellite</em>, <em>Fenugreek leaf curl betasatellite</em> and <em>Chilli leaf curl betasatellite</em>). </strong><strong>Recombination analysis of the virus and betasatellite sequences</strong><strong> suggested that PepLCBV might be a recombinant of <em>Chilli leaf curl virus</em> as a major parent and <em>Chilli leaf curl Multan virus</em> as a minor parent, whereas ToLCBB seemed to be a recombinant of <em>Tomato leaf curl betasatellite </em>as a major parent and <em>Tomato leaf curl Ranchi betasatellite </em>as a minor parent. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of PepLCBV infecting chilli in India.</strong></p> JYOTI SHARMA PRIYA LAGER RAHUL KUMAR YOGESH KUMAR ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 75 88 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i39-408075 TRIPLE TEST CROSS ANALYSIS FOR DETERMINING GENE ACTION, GENETIC CORRELATIONS AND PREDICTION FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT <p><strong>In two crosses of bread wheat (Gemmeiza11 x Misr1 and Gemmeiza12 x Misr2) to investigate gene action, genetic correlations and predicating new recombinant lines for days to heading, plant height, flag leaf area, number of spikes/plant, number of grains/spike, 1000-grain weight, spike grain weight and grain yield /plant, triple test cross was used. The starting materials for triple test cross was the F<sub>1</sub> and their grand parents (P<sub>1</sub> and P<sub>2</sub>) for the two studied wheat crosses. The first cross Gemmeiza 11 x Misr1 and the second cross was Gemmeiza 12x Misr2. The F<sub>1</sub>’s were selfed to produce F<sub>2</sub>’s grains. In order to create F<sub>1</sub> and F<sub>2</sub> plants, the obtained materials (F<sub>1</sub> and F<sub>2</sub> grain genotypes) and the parental genotypes were seeded together. Thirty individual F<sub>2</sub> plants were randomly labeled from each cross and crossed back to their grand parents (P<sub>1</sub> and P<sub>2</sub>) and F<sub>1</sub> between then to produce three types of families L<sub>1</sub> (F<sub>2i</sub> x P<sub>1i</sub>), L<sub>2</sub> (F<sub>2i</sub> x P<sub>2i</sub>) and L<sub>3</sub> (F<sub>2i</sub> x F<sub>1i</sub>) in each cross. On November 10, 2018, during the winter growing season, the triple test cross families (L<sub>1</sub>, L<sub>2</sub> and L<sub>3</sub>), along with the parents, F<sub>1</sub> and F<sub>2</sub> in each cross, were seeded. Results showed that in the genetic system for the investigated features for two crosses, epistatic gene effects were significant. The types of epistasis (additive x additive, additive x dominance and dominance x dominance) were significant for all studied characters. For the majority of traits in both crossings, both additive and dominant genetic components were significant and involved in the genetic system. The average level of dominance for spikes/plant in cross 1 and spike grain weight in cross -2 was overdominance, while for the remaining characters, additive gene effects were more pronounced. The F value was positive and significant for 1000-grain weight in two crosses, suggesting that dominant genes controlling these characters were unidirectional. The highest proportion of inbreds excepted to outperform parental rang in cross 1 for days to heading and flag leaf area. In both crosses, grain yield per plant was positively and significantly correlated with number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike, and 1000-grain weight, according to epistasis, additive, and dominance genetic correlations.</strong></p> A. A. KANDIL M. A. ABDEL-MONEAM H. HAFEZ, SOAD S. GOMAA HASNAA ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 47 57 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i39-408013 RESPONSE OF Jatropha curcas PLANTS TO EM WHEN GROWN IN SAND SOIL AMENDED WITH ORGANIC MATTER <p>This study consummated in the open field at the nursery of Hort. Res. Inst., A.R.C., Giza, Egypt during 2020 and 2021 seasons to explore the response of <em>Jatropha curcas</em>&nbsp; plants to EM (effective microorganisms) which was applied as soil drench at 3 ml/L, 5 times with one month interval. Plants cultured in 25-cm-diameter plastic pots filled with sand only as control (T1), sand + plant compost 10 % mixture (T2), T2 + EM (T3), sand + plant compost 20 % mixture (T4), T4 + EM (T5), sand + plant compost 30 % mixture (T6) and T6+ EM (T7). The obtained results showed that means of the different growth parameters ;expressed as:&nbsp; plant height, number of leaves / plant , leaf area , root length , as well as fresh and dry weights of stem, leaves and roots were ascending increased as the ratio of compost was increased in the soil especially with EM treatments compared to means of control in most cases of the two seasons, otherwise stem diameter trait, which progressively increased with the middle ratio of compost (20 %) and compost (20 %) + EM followed by the highest one (30 %) and (30%) + EM reached to the lowest values of compost (10 %) and (10 %) + EM over control in the first and second season. A similar trend was also obtained regarding the leaf content of chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids beside the percentages of N and total carbohydrates which were recorded the highest values with sand + compost (30%) subsequent sand + compost (20%) and sand + compost (10%) individually or with EM. Whereas, the leaf contents of P% and K% significantly increased in sand + compost (20%), (30 %) and then (10%) whether with EM or without. Hence, it can be recommended to drench EM (3 ml/l) in sand soil mixed with plant compost (30 %) in which&nbsp; <em>J</em>. <em>curcas</em> plants are grown to keep good growth and the best quality plant.</p> REEM M. SAID HESHAM S. GHAZZAWY ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-23 2022-12-23 36 46 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i39-407996 EVALUATION OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONS OF INDIGENOUS AND UNDERUTILIZED GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES OF NORTH GUJARAT, INDIA <p>Human needs wide range of nutrients for growth, development and to lead an active and healthy life. Green leafy vegetables are rich sources of carotenoids (Vitamin 'A') as well as appreciable amounts of minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, iron, zinc, manganese and copper. In view of less utilization of some of tradition leafy vegetables by people of Banaskantha district and paucity of scientific information on nutritive value, it is proposed to assess nutritive value of less familiar, six underutilised green leafy vegetables <em>viz.,</em> dodi, poi, kanjaro, khatedo, radish and sarsiya for proximate composition. Healthy, six green leaves were randomly collected in fresh conditions from farmer’s fields of surrounding villages and subjected to analysis of different nutrients. At the end of the study it was found that Dodi (<em>Leptadenia reticulate) </em>and kanjaro<em> (Digera arvensis) </em>have high percentage of crude protein, ash and crude fibre as compared to other underutilized vegetables and hence can be used routinely as a part of diet to fulfil the nutrient requirement of&nbsp; peoples of Banaskantha region.</p> P. K. PATEL J. J. DHADUK S. S. PATIL ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-22 2022-12-22 30 35 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i39-407993 In vitro CYTOTOXICITY AND APOPTOTIC INDUCING EFFECTS OF Dimera acutipus ON MCF-7 BREAST CANCER CELLS <p>Cancer is a complex multistage diseases process. Surgery and radio therapy are failing to cure certain kind of malignancies chiefly because of the tumour is already disseminated for this reason the chemotherapeutic agents are sought. Therefore, there is need to find out a new class of anti-cancer agents with no or less toxic from medicinal herbal plant sources. Hence it is of interest to investigate the in-vitro analysis cytotoxicity and apoptotic inducing efficacy of the plant extract studies were undertaken. The <em>in-vitro </em>analysis of cytotoxicity of the chloroform extract of <em>Dimera acutipus </em>were analysed by using the MTT assay and the apoptotic analysis was performed by the flow cytometric analysis. The present study is to explore the cytotoxicity as well as the apoptotic effects of the chloroform extract of aerial parts of <em>Dimera acutipus</em> in normal Vero cell lines and human breast cancer cell lines. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the plant extract in Vero and MCF-7 cell lines was undertaken. Our results indicate that non cytotoxic nature of the chloroform extract of <em>Dimera acutipus </em>in appropriate cell lines. In conclusion the anti-apoptotic analysis clearly indicates the chloroform extract of <em>Dimera acutipus </em>has the ability of cell cycle arresting potential in conclusion the present investigation clearly envisages a plant extract could be a strong anticancer agent.</p> SELVAKUMAR SIVAGNANAM SAJUSHA DUGULURI ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-09 2022-12-09 23 29 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i39-407956 ROLE OF AMINO ACIDS IN IMPROVING GROWTH, YIELD AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF SOME EGYPTIAN CLOVER CULTIVARS <p>The lack of green forage of good quality is considered the main constraints that contribute to the lack of livestock development. An experiment was performed at Sakha Agricultural Research Station Farm, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, to study the role of spraying commercial amino acids (g-plus) and pure tryptophan on forage yield and chemical composition of three Egyptian clover cultivars during the two successive winter seasons 2019/2020 and 2020/2021.</p> <p>&nbsp;The experiment was laid out in a strip-plot design with three replications. The main plots were occupied by amino acids treatments <em>i.e.</em> spray with water (control), spray with g-plus (5cm/l water) and spray with tryptophan at two concentration (200 and 400 mg/l). While sub-plots contained three cultivars of berseem; Helaly, Serw1 and Giza 6. The results showed that, the maximum total fresh forage yield, total dry forage yield, average of plant height, number of stem per 0.25 m<sup>2</sup>, fresh leaf/stem percent and dry leaf/stem percent were obtained for variety Helaly spraying by amino acid g-plus (5cm/l water). Also, the obtained results showed that, foliar spraying of amino acids caused significant increase of most physiological characters in comparison to the control. The highest values of chlorophyll content, relative water content (RWC %), protein % and NPK% were obtained with spraying g-plus. Concerning, the cultivars effects showed a wide range of variation in their productivity where, Helaly was the highest values of the most physiological parameters as well as yield and yield components. The interaction effects of foliar spraying of amino acids and cultivars showed that, Helaly treated with g-plus (5cm/l) gave the highest values of growth and physiological parameters.</p> A. S. M. BADAWY SHEREEN, M. A. EL-NAHRAWY RANIA, F. EL-MANTAWY ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-07 2022-12-07 9 22 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i39-407955 In vitro MULTIPLE SHOOT INDUCTION OF Citrus aurantifolia <p>The present study provides an efficient and simple method for the micropropagation of <em>C. aurantifolia</em> which can be effectively used for its mass propagation. Of all the different concentrations used, the maximum number of shoots was initiated in the medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l of BAP. The medium supplemented with 1.5mg/l BAP and 1.5 mg/l KN was proven to be the best for shoot induction with maximum response of explants (79.57 %) as well as the maximum number of shoots per explant with shoot length. However, there was no significant response from the explant inoculated in the medium supplemented with cytokinin (KN and BAP) in combination with auxin (2, 4-D and NAA). NAA was found to be more effective for root induction than IAA. The regenerated shoots cultured in MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l NAA resulted in maximum response of 83.52%.</p> PUNYAKISHORE MAIBAM VAIDURYA PRATAP SAHI ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-29 2022-11-29 1 8 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i39-407942 ASCERTAINING THE EFFECT OF BAP (6- BENZYL AMINO PURINE) ON ROSE (Rosa spp) THROUGH MICROPROPAGATION <p><strong>In this investigation, Rose nodal explants from healthy shoots were grown on a base MS medium supplemented with various BAP concentrations (6-Benzyl Amino Purine). It was determined from the various concentrations that the shoot initiation and development were best at the concentration of 3 mg/lit. From the third day to a one-month interval, the various stages of shoot development were examined. It was revealed that callus initiation begins on day 10, axillary shoot initiation on day 2, and that growth and development begin on day 3 and last for a month, respectively. Additionally, the established healthy shoot culture will be kept up and given root initiation treatment using rooting media. The ideal rooting media concentration will be fixed for better root initiation and development.</strong></p> SHAKIRA AFNAN MOHAMMAD SADAR SOWMIYA MADHAIYAN SNEAHA MAHADEVAN SHALINI GOVINDARAJ SINDHUJA RAVICHANDRAN SOWMIYA JAYAKUMAR THARSHENEE UMAPATHY VIDHYA LAKSHMANASAMY SAMPATH SARANGAPANI ASHOK SUBIRAMANIYAN ARUL GANESH THANGARAJ VALARMATHI MUTHU RAJESH MOORTHY SALA MURUGAN SHUNMUGAVADIVEL THANGAVEL SARANKUMAR CHANDRAN ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 75 81 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i37-387924 STUDY ON GENETIC VARIATION OF KELEMBAK (Rheum officinale Baill.) USING RAPD MOLECULAR MARKERS IN CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA <p><strong>Kelembak (<em>Rheum officinale</em> Baill.) is native to mainland Central China and is reported as an endangered medicinal plant. This plant in Indonesia is distributed in mountainous areas; the center of rhubarb cultivation is in the Dieng Plateau. Mainly, this plant is grown for the roots as herbal medicine material (kelembak jamu) and in the industry for cigarette ingredients (kelembak Jawa). This study aimed to assess the genetic diversity of nine accessions of <em>R. officinale</em>. Six selected RAPD primers were used to amplify the samples and produced 33 DNA fragments ranging from 270-2,710 bp. The genetic similarity ranged from 74.58% to 100% using the Dice similarity index. The dendrogram divided <em>R. officinale</em> into two main clusters separated between kelembak jamu and kelembak jawa. Cluster analysis revealed that Mangli accession (kelembak jamu) had a closer similarity to kelembak Jawa. The narrow genetic diversity of kelembak is essential information for future conservation and management programs in the cultivation of this species.</strong></p> DYAH SUBOSITI DIAN SUSANTI HARTO WIDODO DEVI SAFRINA ROHMAT MUJAHID YULI WIDIYASTUTI ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-28 2022-10-28 68 74 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i37-387911 INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF GENOTYPE AND WATER DEFICIT ON YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS OF MAIZE INBRED LINES AND F1 DIALLEL CROSSES <p><strong>Maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) is vulnerable to drought stress at flowering stage, which has a detrimental impact on yield characteristics. Drought tolerance is genotype dependent.&nbsp; The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Water Deficit Stress (WDS) at flowering stage, genotype and their interaction on some agronomic, physiologic, grain yield and quality traits of 8 maize inbred lines and their 28 diallel crosses and also attempt to identify the maize genotypes tolerant to WDS conditions. The parents and F<sub>1</sub> crosses were evaluated in two seasons. A split plot design with three replications was used, where main plots were allotted to two irrigation treatments, i.e., Well Watering (WW) by giving all recommended irrigations and WDS by withholding the 4<sup>th</sup> and 5<sup>th</sup> irrigations, while sub plots were allotted to genotypes. Water deficit stress caused a significant decrease in grain yield/plant (32.3%), grain yield/ha (26.7%), ears/plant (30.6%), rows/ear (10.2%), kernels/row (9.3%), kernels/plant (43.8%), 100-kernel weight (19.9%), plant height (8.5%), ear height (11.9%), and chlorophyll concentration index (17.3%) and a significant increase in anthesis-silking interval (58.82 %), days to anthesis (4.29%), days to silking (6.40%), barren stalks (20.0%), and grain protein content (16.0%). On average, means across F<sub>1</sub> crosses were higher than those across inbreds for all studied traits, except for grain protein content and days to 50% silking, where the opposite was true, under both WDS and WW conditions. The rank of inbreds and crosses for studied traits under WDS was changed from that under WW conditions. The reduction in grain yield/ha of inbred lines due to drought (37.36%) was generally higher than that in F<sub>1</sub> hybrids (25.67%). It was possible to identify some inbreds and hybrids characterized by high yield and high tolerance to WDS conditions, which were recommended for use in breeding programs for improving drought tolerance in maize.</strong></p> AHMED MEDHAT MOHAMED AL-NAGGAR AHMED MONGED SOLIMAN ELHAM MOHAMED HASSAN MOHAMED ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-18 2022-10-18 51 67 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i37-387899 CLONAL VARIATION OF GROWING AND MAHOGANY (Swietenia macrophylla King) CLONE SELECTION IN AN ASEXUAL SEED ORCHARD <p><strong><em>Swietenia macrophylla</em></strong><strong> King. (Mahogany) is a tropical tree of timber use which is classified as one of the principal economic and forest important native species in Latin-American. There are few works about germplasm of superior genetically trees. This germplasm source is very important to establish commercial forestry plantations. For this reason, the objective of this work was to select superior clones from an asexual seed orchard which was established in September 2014. The orchard was established under a randomized complete block experimental design in a royal frame of distance 4x4 m, in which 50 clones (</strong><strong>ortet) with 49 replicates (ramet) were cultured obtaining 2,450 ramets in total. Variables evaluated were total height, clean stem height, normal diameter and crown diameter. It was carried out a principal components analysis and an analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, a test of comparison of means using the Tukey test at 5% of probability level (p≤0.05) and a conglomerate analysis was carried out. From 50 clones, it was identified 16 genetically superior materials: 1-CaLK149, 28-CaNB23; 23-CaNB48; 7-CaLK147; 20-CaNB14; 14-CaNB26; 25-CaNP132; 3-CaNP143; 9-CaB102; 24-CaLK147; 18-CaNB24; 19-CaNB19; 11-CaNB26; 13-CaNB21; 29-CaNB19; 21-CaNB26, these materials showed an average of 8.6±0.3 m of total height, 2.4±0.1 m of clean trunk height, 0.13±0.0 m of normal diameter and 4.3±0.2 m of tree crown diameter. Those clone groups identified as superior trees were recommended to continue in a forest breeding program.</strong></p> JOSÉ VIDAL COB UICAB BARTOLO RODRÍGUEZ SANTIAGO GILBERT JOSÉ HERRERA COOL ÁNGEL JAVIER CAMMAL COLLÍ ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-15 2022-10-15 17 25 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i37-387894 CHITOSAN AND AMINO ACIDS-COATED NANOPARTICLES POSITIVELY ALTERED ATROPINE ACCUMULATION, THE GENE EXPRESSION OF Tropinone reductase 1 AND THE YIELD OF Datura innoxia MILL <p><strong>Two consecutive seasons (2020 and 2021) were held for cultivating <em>Datura innoxia</em> Mill as a medicinal plant for increasing the production of seeds and active ingredients as a native goal for our economy by using several aspects of chitosan (bulky and nanoparticles) as a biocompatible and biodegradable substance because of its crustacean origin and amino acids (individually and loaded onto chitosan nanoparticles). Data showed that formulated chitosan nanoparticles 100 mg/L loaded with methionine 40 mg/L gave an excellent record of fruit number per plant and seed weight per plant, and the highest protein content combined with the lowest range of the toxic compound malondialdehyde. Additionally, applying chitosan nanoparticles 50 mg/L coated with methionine 40 mg/L to <em>D. innoxia</em> plants resulted in the highest accumulation of atropine alkaloid and several polypeptides in the protein electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) when compared with control. Furthermore, in the roots of <em>D. innoxia</em>, where tropane alkaloids are synthesized, this application induced the expression of the tropinone reductase 1 (DiTR1) gene, a key gene in the synthesis of tropane alkaloids. So, the target of using nanotechnology applications (chitosan nanoparticles functionalized with methionine) in agriculture, especially medicinal plants, to increase yield and secondary metabolites has proven helpful, according to our findings. Future biological studies for these treatments are recommended, in order to test their safety on plants and humans.</strong></p> ASMAA A. MAHDI MOHAMED N. S. SULIMAN KHALED Y. FARROH OMRAN GHALY EMAD SALEH HAMED HAMDI M. IBRAHIM ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-15 2022-10-15 26 50 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i37-387895 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION BY GC-MS, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF PEELS AND LEAVES EXTRACTS FROM Citrus limon, Citrus sinensis AND Citrus reticulata <p><strong><em>Citrus</em></strong><strong> family especially lemon, mandarin and orange, have reached important attention due to the presence of several components with different therapeutic properties. The leaves and peels of non-polar extracts from bio-citrus cultivars were investigated for phytochemical analysis, antibacterial and antioxidant capacity. The DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)</strong> <strong>activity and phosphommolybdenum antioxidant effect values from leaves and peels ranged from 0 to 12.79% and 0.006 to 0.14 mg/ml AAeq respectively. Results showed significant differences in antioxidant properties of leaves and peels extracts. The leaves of mandarin exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than the other extracts from lemon and orange. Among different components identified from the organic extracts, limonene, myrcene, and benzopyran were major components in all samples.</strong></p> HADJER BOUSSOUSSA IHCEN KHACHEBA SARA BOUKHALKHAL YASMINE LAMRI AHLAM BOUTI ARTUR M. S. SILVA MOHAMED YOUSFI ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-08 2022-10-08 86 90 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i35-367885 IMPROVING DROUGHT STRESS TOLERANCE IN POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L.) USING MAGNETITE AND ZINC OXIDE NANOPARTICLES <p><strong>Potato is a very sensitive to drought stresses, necessitates specific amounts and quality of water. Making substantial changes to increasing tolerances are not easily due to their narrow genetic base. Researchers developed many techniques to reduce the effects of abiotic stress. In current work we studied the effect Nano Particles of Zinc dioxide (ZnO-NPs) and Magnetite (Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-NPs) at (0.0, 2.5, 5.0 ppm) in elevating the negative effect of drought stress (Sorbitol) at (0.0, 1, 2, 3, 4 Mm) on micropropagation, microtuberization and some biochemical characters, using two potato cultivars (Almond, and Picasso). Maximum mean values were achieved by Almond cultivar and by ZnO-NP in most vegetative, harvesting parameters <em>in vitro</em>. In experiment 1: increases sorbitol levels caused reduction in all parameters inversely, and growth was stopped completely by (0.40) M which considered as a lethal dose to potato explants for both cultivars. In experiment 2: results illustrated that, significant improved due to add nanoparticles of ZnO or Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> at two concentrations (2.50 and 5.00) ppm on all morphological, harvesting parameters at 0.40 M and 0.3 M of sorbitol. About secondary metabolites: the maximum record of flavonoids (querecetin and kaempferol)</strong> <strong>and antioxidant capacity was achieved by Almond with sorbitol 0.3M. Almond also recorded the maximum mean of quercetin, kaempferol and, DPPH scavenging activity was decreased in sorbitol 0.3M for both NPs treatments. At 0.4M, secondary enhanced accumulation metabolites and scavenging activity especially at ZnO NPs (5 ppm) and Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> NPs (2.5 ppm), in quercetin and kaempferol with Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4-</sub>NPs (5.0 ppm).</strong></p> AMIRA R. SALLAM ASMAA A. MAHDI KHALED Y. FARROH ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-08 2022-10-08 1 16 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i37-387886 TAXONOMIC STUDY OF FRESHWATER ALGAE FROM WATER BODIES IN HALLOKI VILLAGE, LAHORE, PAKISTAN <p>Halloki village Lahore was explored for freshwater algae and 7 samples were collected from different sites (Freshwater ponds, marshy areas, irrigated channels, watered field, road side streams, etc) during October 2020 to April 2021. Total nineteen genera and thirty four species of algae belonging to three kingdoms; Monera, Protista and Protoctista were recorded for the very first time from Halloki village Lahore, Pakistan, rest of them have previously been reported other sites of Lahore <em>(lil. cit). </em>Kingdom Monera included one phylum Cyanophycota (8.82%) containing 1 class, 1 order, 2 families, 2 genera and 3 species i.e. <em>Oscillatoria irrigua, O. tenuis </em>and<em> Anabaena aequalius. </em>Kingdom Protista was found to be most abundant having three phyla; Volvophycota (29.40%), Euglenophycota (2.94%) and Bacillariophycota (29.41%) containing 4 classes, 6 orders, 11 families, 13 genera and 21 species i.e. <em>Crucigenia quadrata, Closteridium lunula, Palmodictyon viride, P. varium, Cosmarium subcreantum, Closterium lanceolatum, C. acerosum, C. parvulum, C. cornu var. arcum, C. lunula var. lunula f. biconvexum, Euglena polymorpha, Cymbella affinis, Nitzchia vasnii, N. palea, Acanthes trigibba, Navicula disjuncta, N. microspora, N. exigua, Anomoeoneis exilis, Synedra ulna </em>and<em> Melosira varaians.</em> Kingdom Protoctista included one phylum Chlorophycota (29.40%) containing 2 classes Ulvophyceae (11.76%) and Zynemophyceae (17.64%) respectively, 4 orders, 4 families, 4 genera and 10 species i.e. <em>Microspora ameona, M. crassior, M. pachyderma, Ulothrix subconstricta, Oedogonium nodulosum, Spirogyra condensata, S. aplanospora, S. intorta, S. bullata and S. acquinoctialis.</em></p> TOOBA ZIA GHAZALA BUTT FATIMA ARIF HASSAN NAWAZ SABA ZAFAR AMINA FAREED ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-06 2022-10-06 64 85 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i35-367878 DNA BARCODING OF SOME ZYGOPHYLLACEAE SPECIES IN THE EGYPTIAN FLORA <p>DNA barcoding is gaining a high popularity and due to its simplicity and high accuracy as compared to the complexity associated with morphological identification of taxa. Therefore, we tested the potential of the rbcL, matK and ITS f markers for the identification of wild plants belonging to diverse Zygophyllaceae species from different sites of Egypt. Maximum likelihood tree analysis was performed to evaluate the resolution power of each marker to discriminate species. The analyses of nucleotide sequences of rbcL, matK and ITS revealed that the topology of the rbcL tree was the best resolved which enabled identification of the majority of the species, perfectly. Therefore, we can suggest use of the rbcL region as an additional tool for phylogenetic analysis in Zygophyllaceae species. We recommend this study for any further studies on Zygophyllaceae family and contribution to taxonomical researches by adding a new dimension to the Egyptian flora.</p> RASHA M. A. KHALIL ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-26 2022-09-26 53 63 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i35-367864