PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 2023-07-12T11:17:07+00:00 International Knowledge Press Open Journal Systems <p><strong>PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (ISSN: 0972-2025)</strong> journal is published by I. K. Press from Volume 14. <strong>PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY</strong> is the official journal of <strong>Society for Biology and Biotechnology</strong>, Kannankurichi-P.O Salem-636 008, Tamil Nadu State, India.</p> <p><strong>The Scope of Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology (PCBMB) (ISSN: 0972-2025) includes</strong><br>1. Plant Science related research (including all branches of Plant Science like Agronomy, Algology and Phycology, Bacteriology, Bryology, Mycology, Paleobotany, Plant Anatomy and Physiology, Pteridology, etc)<br>2. Cell Biology (including all branches of Cell Biology)<br>3. Biotechnology (including all branches of Biotechnology)<br>4. Molecular Biology (including all branches of Molecular Biology)<br>This international English-language journal includes papers exploring both basic and applied aspects of the above-mentioned areas.</p> Zinc and Boron Application Affected a-Fruit Set and Fruit Quality of Date Palm cv. Barhee 2023-07-12T11:17:07+00:00 Darwesh, R. S. S. Rasmia Mohamed, A. M. Malhat, M. H. Mervat Al-Aramany, W. El Deen, H. Rabab <p>Barhee trees were facing the major problem as poor fruit set and low fruits quality (Shees fruits) and the low yield due to inadequate pollination, The date palm female trees under experimental study were uniformed under farm management as irrigation, pollination, pruning and soil fertilization with both mineral (N, P, K and S) and organic fertilizers (animal manure) to investigate the influence of boron and zinc to increasing fruit set and yield, zinc 1,2 and 3 g/l and Boron at 1,2 and 3 ml/l as foliar before pollinated inflorescences and soil application at 10,20 and 30 g/tree two times /month. The obtained results revealed that treated trees with Borax spraying at 2 ml/l + Zn 2 g/l as pre pollination with soil application at 20 ml Borax + 20 g/l Zn induced heavy fruit, flesh and seeds with longest fruits that contributed to the biggest bunch weight and total yield/ tree in addition to higher rates of fruit retention and Flesh fruit weight %, fruit acidity and phenols were reduced. So based on the previous results, spraying inflorescences and soil treatments with Borax and Zn were applied for increasing and enhancing fruit quality and maximum yield of date palm cv. Barhee.</p> 2023-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Effect of BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and NAA (α-Napthalene Acetic Acid) treatment on Micropropagation of Adansonia digitata L. 2023-07-04T10:34:37+00:00 Mujeeb Ur. Rehman Manisha Chaudhary Sandeep Kumar <p>The African Baobab, also known as Kalpvriksha (<em>Adansonia digitata</em> L.), is a significant multi-purpose tree that has gained popularity among people, primarily in African countries, for its use as food, fodder, clothing, and ropes. There is one of the obstacle arises in growing this plant by farmers in India is the lack of planting materials. The young plants of <em>A. digitata </em>L. have to be imported form selected nurseries. Therefore, micropropagation can be used as a substitute method to create offspring that are genetically similar to the parent plant. In order to micropropagate Kalpvriksh (<em>A. digitata </em>L.), this experiment is being conducted utilizing shoot tip explants. For shoot proliferation, these explants are grown in MS medium containing various concentrations of BAP (6- Benzylamino purine): 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.5, 5.0 mg/L. Shoots are rooted in a medium containing at the same concentration of NAA (α-Napthalene Acetic Acid) 0.5 mg/L alone or with combination. Complete Randomized Design (CRD) is used to conduct each experiment. ANOVA and the Duncan New Multiple Range test are used to examine the data. According to the technique for micropropagation of <em>A. digitata</em> L. The concentration of BAP and NAA was found to be 1.5 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L respectively which showed better enhancement for shoot regeneration and rooting for micropropagation of Kalpvriksha (<em>Adansonia digitata</em> L.) tree. </p> 2023-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Green Synthesis, Characterization, Antioxidant and Photocatalytic Dye Degradation Effects of Copper (Cu) Nanoparticles from the Aqueous Extract of Persea americana 2023-06-29T13:19:11+00:00 S. Selvakumar E. Abirami K. K. Prapanjan <p>Nanoparticles have played a very important role in modern research. This technology involves the synthesis of nanoparticles with controllable size, shape, and material dispersion at nanometer-scale lengths. In the current work, copper nanoparticles have been synthesized by simple green technology using <em>Persea americana</em> leaf extract. The formation of Cu NPs was monitored by recording UV-Vis absorption spectra showing surface plasmon resonance at 320 nm. The green synthetic copper nanoparticles will be further characterized by FT-IR, FESEM, EDS and XRD. FT-IR identified the presence of active groups and phenolic groups. The crystal morphology and size of the nanoparticles will be determined by FESEM and X-ray diffraction studies. It was found that the average particle size of the copper nanoparticles was in the range of 71 nm. These biosynthetic copper nanoparticles were tested for the photocatalytic dye degradation of commercially important textile dyes such as methylene blue The antioxidant activity of green synthesized nanoparticles from the fruit extract was analysed by DPPH-free radical scavenging assay method. The results show that green synthetic nanoparticles have strong dye degradation potential.</p> 2023-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Inducing Efficacy of Ctenolepsis cerasiformis Extract on Hela Cervical Cancer Cells 2023-06-29T13:13:17+00:00 S. Selvakumar D. Sajusha P. Divyadharshini A. J. Vinslin Joe <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Cancer is a major problem around the world. Now a day’s cervical cancer becomes the most common cause of cancer in women. The early identification and affordable drugs will help to eliminate the seriousness of cancer.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The <em>in vitro</em> cytotoxicity analysis of chloroform extract of <em>Ctenolepsis cerasiformis </em>was undertaken by the method of MTT assay and the apoptotic activity of the chloroform extract of <em>Ctenolepsis cerasiformis </em>was performed by the flow cytometry analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The chloroform extract of <em>Ctenolepsis cerasiformis</em> shown important antiproliferative action on human cervical cancer cells as compared to the normal Vero cell lines.</p> <p><strong>Discussion: </strong>There is a need to find out the less toxic or no toxic novel anti-proliferative agent from the medicinal plant sources is paramount importance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Hence, the <em>in vitro </em>cytotoxicity and the apoptotic effects of the chloroform extract of <em>Ctenolepsis cerasiformis</em> on human cervical cancer cell lines such as HeLa cell lines were undertaken.</p> 2023-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity in Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea var. rugosa) Employing SSR Molecular Markers 2023-05-22T10:14:32+00:00 Aditi Shrivastav Manoj Kumar Tripathi Sushma Tiwari Niraj Tripathi Prakash N. Tiwari S. S. Bimal Poonam Rajpoot Shailja Chauhan <p>Indian mustard (<em>Brassica juncea</em> var. rugosa) constitutes an authoritative group of mustard crops in India. Evaluation of genetic diversity is a vivacious component of mustard breeding programmes for efficient utilization of plant genetic resources. In present study, 77 microsatellite markers were employed to assess the genetic diversity of 75 Indian mustard genotypes. Results revealed positive amplification for all SSRs, with 21 SSRs exhibiting polymorphic amplicons. A total of 99 alleles, ranging from 3 to 5 with an average of 4.71 alleles per SSR marker were obtained. The major allele frequency varied between 0.26 (cnu/m616) and 0.56 (ENA28F) with an average value of 0.36. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.67 and ranged between 0.43 (ENA28F) and 0.76 (gi258660710gbGT071338.1). Mean value of 0.72 was detected for each pair of SSR primers, with the gene diversity per locus ranging between 0.53 (ENA28F) and 0.79 (gi258660710gbGT071338.1). The dendrogram grouped the 75 genotypes into three main clusters or subpopulations based on Unweighted Neighbour-Joining technique. The study revealed better understanding of the genetic diversity among different Indian mustard genotypes using genomic-SSR markers that could be exploited for the genetic improvement of the crop.</p> 2023-05-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. Biochemical Characterization of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes 2023-05-11T13:21:59+00:00 Shrishtika Rajput Sudhanshu Jain Sushma Tiwari Akash Barela Shailja Chauhan Prakash Narayan Tiwari Neha Gupta R. S. Sikarwar Niraj Tripathi M. K. Tripathi <p>Chickpea&nbsp;(<em>Cicer&nbsp;arietinum</em>&nbsp;L.)&nbsp;is one of the most important legumes in the developed as well as developing countries of the world due to its amazing source of dietary proteins. The present experiment was conducted at Research Farm, RVSKVV, College of Agriculture; Gwalior (M.P.).&nbsp; Forty chickpea genotypes were evaluated during <em>Rabi</em> 2020-21 in Randomized block design with two replications. The samples were analyzed for the analysis of peroxidase, Superoxide Dismutase and some of the key biomolecules like total sugars and proline content. The Total sugar ranged from 16.8 mgg<sup>-1</sup> (RVSVT PS-2019- 201) to 24.9 mgg<sup>-1</sup> (RVSVT PS-2019- 214), proline varied from 1.49 μmolg<sup>-1</sup> (RVSVTK-2019- 104) to 2.91 μmolg<sup>-1</sup> (RVSVT PS-2019- 213), superoxide dismutase ranged from 8.2 nmolg<sup>-1</sup> (RVSVT PS-2019- 211) to 20.1nmolg<sup>-1</sup> (RVSVT PS-2019- 205) and lipid peroxide varied from 1.04 nmolg<sup>-1</sup> (RVSVTK-2019-101) to 1.92 nmolg<sup>-1</sup> (RVSVTD-2019- 4, RVSVTD-2019- 10). Findings of the present investigation may help to choose better genotypes with useful biochemical contents for future crop improvement.</p> 2023-05-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf and Stem Extracts of Adansonia digitata 2023-04-25T07:30:52+00:00 Chhavi Goel Rajiv Dutta <p>The species of <em>Adansonia Digitata </em>L. (Baobab) is an important multipurpose tree found to possess an enormous range of medicinal properties and can be used for the treatment of various diseases. Powdered leaves and stem of <em>Adansonia digitata</em> were extracted with 100% ethanol and hydro ethanol using the Soxhlet method of extraction. This research was conducted to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of <em>Adansonia digitata</em> stem and leaf extracts. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and hydroethanolic leaf, stem extracts of <em>Adansonia digitata</em> has been analyzed. The activity of the extracts of different plant parts against both bacteria and fungi strains were screened through disk diffusion assay along with the crude extract was carried out as control experiments. The antimicrobial activity of the leaf and stem extract of the plants showed that the plant extract used was effective against the different isolates tested. According to our observation, ethanolic extract of leave and stems showed higher antimicrobial activity.</p> 2023-04-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. An Overview of Allele Mining for Crop Improvement: TILLING and Eco-TILLING 2023-04-21T07:50:57+00:00 Shivangi Tare Sushma Tiwari Madhurjit Singh Rathore M. Yasin Niraj Tripathi Prakash Narayan Tiwari M. K. Tripathi <p>The primary goal of every plant breeder is to identify gene alleles and then use them in crop improvement programmes. If there is no population variation, there cannot be a breeding programme. Breeders need a lot of labour and money to screen germplasm for a desired gene. Additionally, these screenings are compliant with environmental effects. The method of "allele mining" is employed to identify suitable alleles of a candidate gene affecting important agronomic properties or naturally occurring allelic variations. TILLING and Eco-TILLING are the ideal solutions to this issue for allele mining. A technique known as "tilling" uses mutagens to introduce new diversity in a specific allele. Then, different sequencers are used to screen the diversity in a gene to identify different mutations. The best mutant among them can then be directly used in breeding programmes. In a modified version, alleles of a gene that are present in the population are identified by screening natural populations. Eco-TILLING is the name of this fresh iteration of the technology. The generation of novel haplotypes, the use of molecular markers to characterize genetic diversity and the syntenic links across crop genotypes, as well as marker-assisted selection are just a few of the many applications of allele mining in agriculture and crop improvement. Many genes may be found and used in the breeding of many crop species using these reverse genetics techniques.<em>Allele mining</em></p> 2023-04-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Induction of Systemic Resistance (ISR) in Ground Nut Against Collar Rot (Aspergillus niger) by Using Pyraclostrobin 20% Water Dispersible Grangules 2023-04-19T07:19:11+00:00 S. Sundaramoorthy J. Johnny Subakar Ivin <p>An investigation was performed <em>In vitro</em> condition to check induction of systemic resistance in ground nut with Pyraclostrobin 20% WDG (at different concentrations), Vitavax (Carboxin+Thiram 75%WS), Mancozeb 3 g/kg (75% WP), Carbendazim 50% WP, <em>Trichoderma viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and </em>Untreated Control treatments. Groundnut seeds sown in pot soil mixed with the inoculum of <em>A.niger </em>at 5% level alone served as control. The treatments were given as per the schedule and foliar spray was given at 20% DAS. The experiment was conducted with three replications in a completely randomized design. All observations <em>viz</em>., the collar rot disease incidence (PDI- at 30 DAS), plant height (cm), plant biomass and pod yield was assessed and recorded at harvest following standard procedures. The results showed that all the treatments significantly reduced the collar rot disease incidence compared to the control. Among the treatments, seed treatment plus foliar spray of Pyraclostrobin 20% WDG at 0.15 % (T3) recorded significantly the least collar rot incidence of 14.12 per cent, maximum germination per cent (93.28%) and maximum yield (132.23 g/pot) than other treatments. The dosage level with Pyraclostrobin 20% WDG as seed treatment @ 1.0 g/kg of seed plus foliar spray at the conc. of 0.1% recorded statistically on par results with T3 the best treatment</p> 2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Ameliorative Potentials of Methanol Bark Extract of Detarium senegalense (Tallow Tree) in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats 2023-04-11T10:31:45+00:00 Odeghe Hope Enameguonor Ojieh Anthony Emeka Ossai Nduka Richard Enaohwo Taniyohwo Mamerhi <p>Diabetes is a global metabolic disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide and raises the global death rate, posing a public health concern. Because antidiabetic traditional drugs are expensive, have side effects, and are ineffective, researchers are looking into novel medicinal plants to find a long-term cure that is inexpensive, has few or no side effects, and is highly effective in treating diabetes and its consequences. <em>Detarium senegalense</em> is a versatile plant used to cure a variety of ailments, including diabetes. This research aimed to investigate the ameliorative potentials of methanol bark extract of <em>Detarium senegalense</em> in streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic male Wistar Rats. Thirty (30) adult male Wistar rats weighing 120-180gm were chosen at random and put into six (6) groups of five rats each (n=5) for this investigation. A single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (150mg/kg) produced diabetes in rats. Normal and diabetic control groups are represented by groups 1 and 2, respectively. Group 3, a diabetic group, received metformin (50mg/kg). Groups 4, 5, and 6 received methanol bark extract of <em>Deterium senegalenses</em> at 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively. The animals were euthanized at the end of the 21-day treatment period, and organs were excised for biochemical examination. The generated data was analyzed with the SPSS software, and the results were expressed as mean SEM. Result confirms <em>Detarium senegalense</em> methanol bark extract as a hypoglycemic agent on the diabetic rats, by decreasing blood glucose level and the activity of metabolic enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), increase hexokinase, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Glut 1 and Glut 2 activities while decreasing the activities of <em>Malondialdehyde</em>. Conclusively, the bark of <em>Detarium senegalense</em> has been shown to have anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative.</p> 2023-04-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. Molecular Characterization of a Bipartite Begomovirus and an Alphasatellite Associated with Leaf Curl and Mosaic Disease of Bitter Gourd in Punjab 2023-04-07T07:10:25+00:00 Priya Lager Jyoti Sharma Yogesh Kumar <p>Bitter gourd (<em>Momordica charantia</em>) is an economically important vegetable and medicinal plant that gets infected by a number of viruses. A survey was conducted in and around Jalandhar region of Punjab, India to study viral symptoms in the bitter gourd fields. The plants showed reduced fruit size, upward leaf curling and mosaic symptoms, indicating begomovirus infection. DNA was isolated from the symptomatic leaves and tested for begomovirus infection using group-specific PCR primers. Amplified products were cloned into pMD20-T vector and sequenced. Based on the obtained sequence, new sets of primers were designed and used for amplification of complete DNA-A and DNA-B. Complete DNA-A and DNA-B were cloned in pMD20-T and sequenced. Sequence analysis of the present DNA-A and DNA-B showed their highest identity with <em>Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus </em>(ToLCNDV). The associated <em>Tomato leaf curl New Delhi alphasatellite </em>was amplified using universal primers, cloned and sequenced. In phylogenetic analysis, the present DNA-A and DNA-B grouped with ToLCNDV isolates and other begomoviruses reported from bitter gourd. Phylogenetic analysis of the present alphasatellite showed its closet identity with <em>Tomato leaf curl New Delhi alphasatellite</em>. Recombination analysis of the DNA-A sequence showed that the present bitter gourd isolate might be a recombinant of <em>Squash leaf curl China virus</em> (SLCChV) as a major parent and <em>Chilli leaf curl virus</em> as a minor parent. Analysis of the DNA-B suggested it to be a recombinant of SLCChV as a major parent and <em>Chyaote enation yellow mosaic virus </em>as a minor parent. The present alphasatellite might be a recombinant of <em>Tomato yellow spot alphasatellite</em> as a major parent and <em>Croton yellow mosaic alphasatellite </em>as a minor parent. The percent identities of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences validate and support the results of the phylogenetic and recombination analyses.</p> 2023-04-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. Zinc Effects on Antioxidative Enzymes and Nitrate Reductase Activity in Phaseolus vulgaris (Common Bean) Seedling 2023-04-06T05:53:58+00:00 Shaishavee Saini Rekha Gadre <p>The present study analyses antioxidative enzymes and <em>in vitro</em> NR activity in common bean seedlings in response to ZnCl<sub>2</sub> supply over the range of 0 – 1 mM concentrations. Bean seedlings were grown in plastic pots containing acid washed sand for 10 days and watered daily with ½ Strength Hoagland’s Solution containing 5 mM NH<sub>4</sub>NO<sub>3</sub> as nitrogen source and desired concentration of ZnCl<sub>2</sub>. Zn supply increased seedling weight and shoot length at 0.001 mM whereas root length decreased at all concentrations.</p> <p>Amongst the antioxidative enzymes, super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased up to 0.1 mM significantly and then decreased at 1 mM in leaf tissue whereas in root tissue it decreased at 0.001 mM and then increased significantly. The catalase (CAT) activity increased at all the concentration being more prominent at 0.1 mM in leaf whereas in roots it increased substantially at 0.1 and 1 mM Zn. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity in leaf increased at 0.1 mM but decreased at 0.001 and 1 mM, whereas in roots it decreased at all the concentration. Various <em>in vitro</em> activities of NR were analysed in response to Zn supply. The effect of Zn on NADH-NR is more substantial than MVH-NR at all the concentrations. Also NR<sub>max</sub> and NR<sub>act</sub> increased at all the concentration of Zn being most prominent at 0.1 mM in leaf and at 1 mM in root tissue.</p> 2023-04-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. Antihyperglycemic and Anticholesterolemic Effects of Fig Leaf (Ficus glomerata Linn.) Extract in Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Wistar Albino Rats 2023-03-23T10:50:13+00:00 Sanjeev Kumar N. K. Prasad Arti Kumari Kumari Shachi N. K. Dubey <p>In this present scenario,medicinal plants are becoming popular for the treatment of various diseases all over the world. Some of them are being traditionally used in diabetes for human welfare. Diabetes is a common endocrine disorder that impairs glucose metabolism resulting in severe diabetic complications including retinopathy, angiopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and causing neurological disorder due to perturbation in utilization of glucose. In the present study, an effort has been made to assess the antidiabetic properties of <em>Ficus glomerata </em>leaf extract treatment in alloxan monohydrate induced diabetic albino rats. Present study refers to the medicinal plant <em>Ficus glomerata l</em>eaf metabolites compared to insulin treatment animal model. Diabetes was induced in albino rats with the help of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg) intraperitoneal saline injection. Present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of <em>Ficus glomerata </em>aqueous leaf extract in diabetic albino rats for 4 week treatment. The treatment with aqueous leaf extract at high dose (1g/kg) significantly decreased circulating blood glucose concentration in comparison to mild dose (500mg/kg) and low dose (100mg/kg) respectively in diabetic rats. The aqueous leaf extract also improved the hematological picture, weight, biochemical profile and glucose intolerance lowering effects in diabetic animal models. In conclusion, <em>Ficus glomerata </em>leaf metabolites have tremendous antidiabetic potential in alloxan-induced experimental models. The results suggest the possibility that <em>Ficus glomerata </em>leaves metabolites to cure diabetes in herbal medicine.</p> 2023-03-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. Molecular Variability in Phaeoisariopsis personata Causing Late Tikka Leaf Spot of Ground Nut in Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu 2023-03-11T13:22:31+00:00 S. Sundaramoorthy J. Johnny Subakar Ivin <p>An experiment was carried out at Department of plant pathology, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India. To test the five isolates of Phaeoisariopsis personata from different regions of groundnut Vridhachalam-2 (VRI-2) variety that showed typical symptoms of late tikka leaf spot disease from Cuddalore district <em>viz.,</em> Shivapuri (LT1), Srimushnam (LT2), Chaithiram (LT3), Parangipettai (LT4), and Kammapuram (LT5) were collected. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to detect the variations among the isolates of <em>P. personata</em>. Pair wise genetic similarities between the different isolates of <em>P. personata </em>were estimated by DICE similarity coefficient. The Dendrogram results revealed that these five isolates showed 66 per cent to 80 per cent similarity coefficient. There is no congruence between the RAPD pattern and the virulence pattern of test isolates. The clustering in the RAPD dendrogram was not associated with the virulence.</p> 2023-01-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Medicinal Properties in Some Components of Cannabis Species 2023-02-23T07:56:03+00:00 . Sonam Maya Datt Joshi <p>Cannabis is a medicinal plant well known for its medicinal properties. Many species of cannabis are well characterized for their antimicrobial, anti-diabetic and anticancer effects in India and worldwide.</p> <p>The present review focuses on the various medicinal properties from extracts and the various compounds well isolated and characterized from different varieties of Cannabis plant.</p> 2023-01-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. Selection Procedures for Improving Some Economic Characters and Correlated Responses in Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) Cross 2023-02-23T07:56:03+00:00 Heba Hussien Elsayed Hamed Soad H. Hafez Ashraf Ebrahim Ismail Darwesh Maamoun Ahmed Abdel-Moneam <p>A study was done at Sakha Agricultural Research Station Farm, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt during 2019-2021 growing seasons. The study aimed at assessing the efficacy and usability of various selection procedures, determining the effectiveness of selection for superior families and estimating the response to selection. The materials utilized for selection of promising families in early segregating generations included F<sub>2</sub>, F<sub>3</sub> and F<sub>4</sub> generations of Giza 94 × S106 cotton cross.. Findings revealed better F<sub>4</sub> means than the F<sub>3</sub> and F<sub>2</sub> means for all studied characters due to the selection procedures used. High heritability values were recorded for most studied characters. Significant desirable correlations were noticed between seed cotton yield with lint yield, bolls/plant, lint/seed, seeds/boll and boll weight. Canonical discriminant analysis among F<sub>3</sub> families showed that the first five canonical functions accounted for 100% of total variances. While first canonical discriminant function represented 46% of the total variance among genotypes with the greatest Eigen value and prevailed by great loading from most yield characters and micronaire reading. Ten of the selection indices surpassed direct selection in improving lint yield. The highest actual advance in lint yield for F<sub>3</sub> obtained from selection index comprising lint yield/plant in addition to bolls/plant, seeds per boll and lint per seed. In F<sub>4</sub> generation, the maximum actual gains were obtained for most yield traits with indices involved lint yield/plant and seeds/boll with lint/seed. Most of the selected families in F<sub>4</sub> scored high values for almost all the studied characters and surpassed the corresponding means of selected families in F<sub>3</sub> and F<sub>2</sub> generations; these selected families might be used to improve cotton yield and fiber quality in breeding programs.</p> 2023-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. FIRST REPORT AND GENOME CHARACTERIZATION OF Pepper leaf curl Bangladesh virus INFECTING CHILLI IN INDIA 2023-02-20T05:14:07+00:00 JYOTI SHARMA PRIYA LAGER RAHUL KUMAR YOGESH KUMAR <p><strong>Chilli (<em>Capsicum </em><em>annuum</em> L.) leaves showing curling symptoms were collected from Jalandhar region of Punjab, India, a</strong><strong>nd a monopartite begomovirus <em>Pepper leaf curl Bangladesh virus</em> (PepLCBV) associated with <em>Tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite</em> (ToLCBB) was found to infect the crop. </strong><strong>The viral DNA was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Sequencing results revealed that the virus genome and betasatellite consists of 2755 and 1361 nucleotides respectively. Infectious clones of the virus were constructed in binary vector pCAMBIA-1300 and Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. PepLCBV infectious clone caused minor curling in chilli plants when inoculated alone, but it produced typical leaf curl and stunting symptoms in combination with the ToLCBB infectious clone. Phylogenetic analysis with other closely related begomoviruses showed that the present isolate shares high identity with <em>Pepper leaf curl Bangladesh virus. </em>The present isolate grouped with other chilli isolates of begomoviruses reported from India (<em>Pepper leaf curl Lahore virus</em>, <em>Chilli leaf curl Nagpur virus</em> and <em>Tomato leaf curl Liwa virus</em>). Phylogenetic analysis of betasatellite showed its closest identity with <em>Tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite. </em>It grouped with other betasatellites reported from India (<em>Tomato leaf curl betasatellite</em>, <em>Fenugreek leaf curl betasatellite</em> and <em>Chilli leaf curl betasatellite</em>). </strong><strong>Recombination analysis of the virus and betasatellite sequences</strong><strong> suggested that PepLCBV might be a recombinant of <em>Chilli leaf curl virus</em> as a major parent and <em>Chilli leaf curl Multan virus</em> as a minor parent, whereas ToLCBB seemed to be a recombinant of <em>Tomato leaf curl betasatellite </em>as a major parent and <em>Tomato leaf curl Ranchi betasatellite </em>as a minor parent. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of PepLCBV infecting chilli in India.</strong></p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. SURVEY AND ESTIMATION OF YIELD LOSS DUE TO STEM NECROSIS VIRUS OF POTATO GROWING AREAS OF SOUTH-EASTERN RAJASTHAN 2023-02-20T05:14:07+00:00 MAHESH MEENA DHUNI LAL YADAV HARPHOOL MEENA C. B. MEENA RAJENDRA KUMAR YADAV <p><strong>Stem necrosis disease seemed as dim brunet necrotic parts at the nodes and caused girdling of the petiole foremost to leak dropping and necrosis. Stem necrosis disease ranged from 8.5 to 22.5 per cent was recorded in Kota, Baran and Bundi districts of Rajasthan. Significantly tuber yield reduction was recorded at grade wise. Maximum yield reductions (63.16%) were observed under more than 75% disease severity in Southern Eastern Rajasthan. </strong></p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. EFFICIENT NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT IN FIELD CROPS FOR FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY 2023-02-06T13:00:53+00:00 MONEESA BASHIR M. ANWAR BHAT SHAILJA SHARMA NAVJOT RANA SUHAIL FAYAZ SADAF IQBAL RAZIA GULL . RAHEEBA-TUN-NISA WANI BARKAT UL ISLAM . DUSHYANT DHAMNI PATYAL <p><strong>The current agricultural producers are under immense strain to supply rising food demand due to rising population and dwindling land and other resources. Several critical inputs, such as fertilizers and other chemicals, are exploited to address this challenge, creating environmental damage. Soil health has deteriorated, land degradation has occurred, and major environmental challenges have arisen as a result of intensive agricultural production without respect for environmental sustainability. As a result, future efforts to feed the world's growing population should prioritize increasing agricultural output while remaining ecologically responsible. In this sense, novel approaches are required, as current policies are incapable of addressing these issues. The notion of efficient nutrient management, which includes a variety of strategies for agricultural sustainability, as well as numerous soil and crop management strategies (SCMS) meant to maximise crop output under environmentally sustainable conditions, is addressed. Balanced fertilization, minimized use of chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides, and improved crop input utilization efficiency could help reduce greenhouse gas emissions while simultaneously saving the environment. Sustainable agriculture holds promising applications for humanity and the environment, and it can be realised if industrialized and developing countries collaborate to establish a "shared vision" that produces more food with less ecological consequences.</strong></p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. TRIPLE TEST CROSS ANALYSIS FOR DETERMINING GENE ACTION, GENETIC CORRELATIONS AND PREDICTION FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT 2023-01-21T09:08:07+00:00 A. A. KANDIL M. A. ABDEL-MONEAM H. HAFEZ, SOAD S. GOMAA HASNAA <p><strong>In two crosses of bread wheat (Gemmeiza11 x Misr1 and Gemmeiza12 x Misr2) to investigate gene action, genetic correlations and predicating new recombinant lines for days to heading, plant height, flag leaf area, number of spikes/plant, number of grains/spike, 1000-grain weight, spike grain weight and grain yield /plant, triple test cross was used. The starting materials for triple test cross was the F<sub>1</sub> and their grand parents (P<sub>1</sub> and P<sub>2</sub>) for the two studied wheat crosses. The first cross Gemmeiza 11 x Misr1 and the second cross was Gemmeiza 12x Misr2. The F<sub>1</sub>’s were selfed to produce F<sub>2</sub>’s grains. In order to create F<sub>1</sub> and F<sub>2</sub> plants, the obtained materials (F<sub>1</sub> and F<sub>2</sub> grain genotypes) and the parental genotypes were seeded together. Thirty individual F<sub>2</sub> plants were randomly labeled from each cross and crossed back to their grand parents (P<sub>1</sub> and P<sub>2</sub>) and F<sub>1</sub> between then to produce three types of families L<sub>1</sub> (F<sub>2i</sub> x P<sub>1i</sub>), L<sub>2</sub> (F<sub>2i</sub> x P<sub>2i</sub>) and L<sub>3</sub> (F<sub>2i</sub> x F<sub>1i</sub>) in each cross. On November 10, 2018, during the winter growing season, the triple test cross families (L<sub>1</sub>, L<sub>2</sub> and L<sub>3</sub>), along with the parents, F<sub>1</sub> and F<sub>2</sub> in each cross, were seeded. Results showed that in the genetic system for the investigated features for two crosses, epistatic gene effects were significant. The types of epistasis (additive x additive, additive x dominance and dominance x dominance) were significant for all studied characters. For the majority of traits in both crossings, both additive and dominant genetic components were significant and involved in the genetic system. The average level of dominance for spikes/plant in cross 1 and spike grain weight in cross -2 was overdominance, while for the remaining characters, additive gene effects were more pronounced. The F value was positive and significant for 1000-grain weight in two crosses, suggesting that dominant genes controlling these characters were unidirectional. The highest proportion of inbreds excepted to outperform parental rang in cross 1 for days to heading and flag leaf area. In both crosses, grain yield per plant was positively and significantly correlated with number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike, and 1000-grain weight, according to epistasis, additive, and dominance genetic correlations.</strong></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. RESPONSE OF Jatropha curcas PLANTS TO EM WHEN GROWN IN SAND SOIL AMENDED WITH ORGANIC MATTER 2022-12-31T04:10:55+00:00 REEM M. SAID HESHAM S. GHAZZAWY <p>This study consummated in the open field at the nursery of Hort. Res. Inst., A.R.C., Giza, Egypt during 2020 and 2021 seasons to explore the response of <em>Jatropha curcas</em>&nbsp; plants to EM (effective microorganisms) which was applied as soil drench at 3 ml/L, 5 times with one month interval. Plants cultured in 25-cm-diameter plastic pots filled with sand only as control (T1), sand + plant compost 10 % mixture (T2), T2 + EM (T3), sand + plant compost 20 % mixture (T4), T4 + EM (T5), sand + plant compost 30 % mixture (T6) and T6+ EM (T7). The obtained results showed that means of the different growth parameters ;expressed as:&nbsp; plant height, number of leaves / plant , leaf area , root length , as well as fresh and dry weights of stem, leaves and roots were ascending increased as the ratio of compost was increased in the soil especially with EM treatments compared to means of control in most cases of the two seasons, otherwise stem diameter trait, which progressively increased with the middle ratio of compost (20 %) and compost (20 %) + EM followed by the highest one (30 %) and (30%) + EM reached to the lowest values of compost (10 %) and (10 %) + EM over control in the first and second season. A similar trend was also obtained regarding the leaf content of chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids beside the percentages of N and total carbohydrates which were recorded the highest values with sand + compost (30%) subsequent sand + compost (20%) and sand + compost (10%) individually or with EM. Whereas, the leaf contents of P% and K% significantly increased in sand + compost (20%), (30 %) and then (10%) whether with EM or without. Hence, it can be recommended to drench EM (3 ml/l) in sand soil mixed with plant compost (30 %) in which&nbsp; <em>J</em>. <em>curcas</em> plants are grown to keep good growth and the best quality plant.</p> 2022-12-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. EVALUATION OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONS OF INDIGENOUS AND UNDERUTILIZED GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES OF NORTH GUJARAT, INDIA 2022-12-27T04:46:13+00:00 P. K. PATEL J. J. DHADUK S. S. PATIL <p>Human needs wide range of nutrients for growth, development and to lead an active and healthy life. Green leafy vegetables are rich sources of carotenoids (Vitamin 'A') as well as appreciable amounts of minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, iron, zinc, manganese and copper. In view of less utilization of some of tradition leafy vegetables by people of Banaskantha district and paucity of scientific information on nutritive value, it is proposed to assess nutritive value of less familiar, six underutilised green leafy vegetables <em>viz.,</em> dodi, poi, kanjaro, khatedo, radish and sarsiya for proximate composition. Healthy, six green leaves were randomly collected in fresh conditions from farmer’s fields of surrounding villages and subjected to analysis of different nutrients. At the end of the study it was found that Dodi (<em>Leptadenia reticulate) </em>and kanjaro<em> (Digera arvensis) </em>have high percentage of crude protein, ash and crude fibre as compared to other underutilized vegetables and hence can be used routinely as a part of diet to fulfil the nutrient requirement of&nbsp; peoples of Banaskantha region.</p> 2022-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. In vitro CYTOTOXICITY AND APOPTOTIC INDUCING EFFECTS OF Dimera acutipus ON MCF-7 BREAST CANCER CELLS 2022-12-09T12:30:53+00:00 SELVAKUMAR SIVAGNANAM SAJUSHA DUGULURI <p>Cancer is a complex multistage diseases process. Surgery and radio therapy are failing to cure certain kind of malignancies chiefly because of the tumour is already disseminated for this reason the chemotherapeutic agents are sought. Therefore, there is need to find out a new class of anti-cancer agents with no or less toxic from medicinal herbal plant sources. Hence it is of interest to investigate the in-vitro analysis cytotoxicity and apoptotic inducing efficacy of the plant extract studies were undertaken. The <em>in-vitro </em>analysis of cytotoxicity of the chloroform extract of <em>Dimera acutipus </em>were analysed by using the MTT assay and the apoptotic analysis was performed by the flow cytometric analysis. The present study is to explore the cytotoxicity as well as the apoptotic effects of the chloroform extract of aerial parts of <em>Dimera acutipus</em> in normal Vero cell lines and human breast cancer cell lines. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the plant extract in Vero and MCF-7 cell lines was undertaken. Our results indicate that non cytotoxic nature of the chloroform extract of <em>Dimera acutipus </em>in appropriate cell lines. In conclusion the anti-apoptotic analysis clearly indicates the chloroform extract of <em>Dimera acutipus </em>has the ability of cell cycle arresting potential in conclusion the present investigation clearly envisages a plant extract could be a strong anticancer agent.</p> 2022-12-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. ROLE OF AMINO ACIDS IN IMPROVING GROWTH, YIELD AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF SOME EGYPTIAN CLOVER CULTIVARS 2022-12-07T13:23:31+00:00 A. S. M. BADAWY SHEREEN, M. A. EL-NAHRAWY RANIA, F. EL-MANTAWY <p>The lack of green forage of good quality is considered the main constraints that contribute to the lack of livestock development. An experiment was performed at Sakha Agricultural Research Station Farm, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, to study the role of spraying commercial amino acids (g-plus) and pure tryptophan on forage yield and chemical composition of three Egyptian clover cultivars during the two successive winter seasons 2019/2020 and 2020/2021.</p> <p>&nbsp;The experiment was laid out in a strip-plot design with three replications. The main plots were occupied by amino acids treatments <em>i.e.</em> spray with water (control), spray with g-plus (5cm/l water) and spray with tryptophan at two concentration (200 and 400 mg/l). While sub-plots contained three cultivars of berseem; Helaly, Serw1 and Giza 6. The results showed that, the maximum total fresh forage yield, total dry forage yield, average of plant height, number of stem per 0.25 m<sup>2</sup>, fresh leaf/stem percent and dry leaf/stem percent were obtained for variety Helaly spraying by amino acid g-plus (5cm/l water). Also, the obtained results showed that, foliar spraying of amino acids caused significant increase of most physiological characters in comparison to the control. The highest values of chlorophyll content, relative water content (RWC %), protein % and NPK% were obtained with spraying g-plus. Concerning, the cultivars effects showed a wide range of variation in their productivity where, Helaly was the highest values of the most physiological parameters as well as yield and yield components. The interaction effects of foliar spraying of amino acids and cultivars showed that, Helaly treated with g-plus (5cm/l) gave the highest values of growth and physiological parameters.</p> 2022-12-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. In vitro MULTIPLE SHOOT INDUCTION OF Citrus aurantifolia 2022-11-29T13:06:54+00:00 PUNYAKISHORE MAIBAM VAIDURYA PRATAP SAHI <p>The present study provides an efficient and simple method for the micropropagation of <em>C. aurantifolia</em> which can be effectively used for its mass propagation. Of all the different concentrations used, the maximum number of shoots was initiated in the medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l of BAP. The medium supplemented with 1.5mg/l BAP and 1.5 mg/l KN was proven to be the best for shoot induction with maximum response of explants (79.57 %) as well as the maximum number of shoots per explant with shoot length. However, there was no significant response from the explant inoculated in the medium supplemented with cytokinin (KN and BAP) in combination with auxin (2, 4-D and NAA). NAA was found to be more effective for root induction than IAA. The regenerated shoots cultured in MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l NAA resulted in maximum response of 83.52%.</p> 2022-11-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved.